sur les taux de mortalité après remise à l'eau
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Initial and delayed mortalities of largemouth bass
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Beggs, G.L., G.F. Holeton and E.J. Crossman. 1980.
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: Short-term (5-d)
mortality of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
caught and released in the Kenai River was assessed with
radio-telemetry. From 1989 to 1991, 446 adult chinook
salmon were tagged with radio transmitters in four
experiments. Overall hooking mortality averaged 7.6% and
ranged from 10.6% in 1989 to 4.1% in 1991. Mortality was
highest for small males ( lt 750 mm mid-eye length)
compared with large males and all females. Wound location
and bleeding were the factors principally associated with
mortality. Survival of chinook salmon that were hooked in
the gills or were bleeding was significantly reduced;
however, the frequency of these injuries was small in all
experiments. Most mortalities occurred within 72 h of
release. These results support the use of hook-and -release
regulations in similar freshwater chinook salmon
fisheries to reduce sportfishing mortality effectively
and achieve spawning escapement goals.
Bennett, D.H., L.K. Dunsmoor, R.E. Rohrer and B.E.
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State University, California Cooperative Fisheries
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Schreer. 2001. The influence of terminal tackle
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Cooke, S.J., C.D. Suski, B.L. Barthel, K.G.
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mortality of rainbow trout caught by different angling
techniques in Lake Taupo, New Zealand." North
American Journal of Fisheries Management 16(2): 357-363.
mortality was assessed for Lake Taupo wild rainbow trout
Oncorhynchus mykiss caught by four different trolling
techniques and released. Observed cumulative mortalities
48-53 h after hooking were 15.3% for downrigger, 14.0%
for wire line, 7.8% for lead line, and 2.2% for harling.
Both immediate and delayed mortalities for each method
are discussed. Ninety-three percent of the total
mortality occurred within 26 h after release. Hooking
injuries, playing time, transit time, depth atcapture,
and fish length were not significant causes of mortality.
Potential sources of bias in mortality rate estimates are
Dextrase, A.J. and H.E. Ball. 1991. Hooking
mortality of lake trout angled through the ice. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management 11: 477-479.
Diodata, P.J. 1991. Estimating mortality
of hooked and released striped bass. National Marine
Fisheries Service, AFC-22.
Dotson, T. 1982. Mortalities in trout
caused by gear type and angler-induced stress. North
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DuBois, R.B., T.L. Margenau, R.S. Stewart, P.K.
Cunningham and P.W. Rasmussen. 1994. Hooking
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Dunmall, K.M., S.J. Cooke, J.F. Schreer and R.S.
McKinley. 2001. The effect of scented lures on
the hooking injury and mortality of smallmouth bass
caught by novice and experienced anglers. North American
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Ellis, G. 2000. Do winter walleye
survive release? Ontario Out of Doors 32:46-51.
Faccin, A. 1983. Hooking mortality of
fly-caught Duncan River rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
in Harper Lake, British Columbia. British Columbia Fish
and Wildlife, Fisheries Technical Circular 58.
Falk, M.R. and D.V. Gillman. 1975.
Mortality data for angled Arctic grayling and northern
pike from the Great Slave Lake area, Northwest
Territories. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Canada Department of
Environmental Fisheries and Marine Services, Technical
Falk, M.R., D.V. Gillman and L.W. Dahlke. 1974.
Comparison of mortality between barbed and barbless
hooked lake trout. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Canada Department
of Environemtnal Fisheries and Marine Services, Technical
Ferguson, R.A. and B.L. Tufts. 1992. Physiological
effects of brief air exposure in exhaustively exercised
rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): implications for
"catch and release" fisheries. Canadian Journal
of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 1157-1162.
Fielder, D.G. and B.A. Johnson. 1992. Weigh-in,
delayed and total mortality of walleyes at two live-release
fishing tournaments on Lake Oahe, South Dakota. South
Dakota Game and Fish Parks Department, Special Report No.
Fletcher, D.H. 1987. Hooking mortality
of walleye captured in Porcupine Bay, Washington. North
American Journal Fisheries Management 7: 594-596.
Gjernes, T., A. R. Kronlund, et al. (1993).
"Mortality of chinook and coho salmon in their first
year of ocean life following catch and release by anglers."
North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13(3): 524-539.
: The mortality
of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho
salmon O. kisutch in their first year of ocean life
following catch and release by anglers was examined. Five
factors were recorded for each landed fish: species, hook
type, barb type, injury location, and mortality. For the
first time, a recursive causal model was used to analyze
hooking mortality data. The data suggest that hooking
mortality isbetter described by a two -stage process than
by traditional logistic models.Injury location is
affected by hook type and barb type in the first stage,
and mortality is affected by injury location and species
in the second stage. Overall estimated mortality
following release from sportfishing gear was
approximately 30% for chinook salmon and 14% for coho
Goeman, T.J. 1991. Walleye mortality
during a live-release tournament on Mille Lacs, Minnesota.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management 11: 57-61.
Gustaveson, A.W., R.S. Wydoski and G.A. Wedemeyer.
1991. Physiological response of largemouth bass
to angling stress. Transactions of the American Fisheries
Society 120: 629-636.
Harrell, R.M. 1988. Catch and release
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Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern
Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 41: 70-75.
Hartley, R.A. and J. R. Moring. 1991.
Initial and delayed mortality of largemouth and
smallmouth basses due to tournaments. In: Warmwater
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Hamre, Eds.). Fort Colins, Colorado: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forestry Service, General Technical Report
Hegen, H.E. and A.W. Green. 1983.
Handling and tagging survival of hook-caught spotted
seatrout held in cages. Proceedings of the Texas Chapter
of the American Fisheries Society 5: 39-53.
Hegen, H.E. G.E. Saul and G.C. Matlock. 1987.
Survival of hook-caught spotted seatrout. Proceedings of
the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of
the Fish and Wildlife Agencies 38: 488-494.
Hubbard, W.D. and L.E. Miranda. 1991.
Mortality of white crappie after catch and release.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern
Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 43: 49-55.
Hulbert, P.J. and R. Engstrom-Heg. 1980.
Hooking mortality of worm-caught hatchery brown trout.
New York Fish and Game Journal 27: 1-10.
Hunsaker, D., II., L.F. Marnell and P. Sharpe.
1970. Hooking mortality of Yellowstone cutthroat
trout. Progressive Fish Culturist 32: 231-235.
Hysmith, B.T., J.H. Moczygemba and G.R. Wilde.
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Texoma, Texas-Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and
Wildlife Agencies 46: 413-420.
Jackson, J.J. and D.W. Willis. 1991.
Short-term mortality of smallmouth bass caught during a
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Prairie Naturalist 23: 201-204.
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a technique for swim bladder deflation. Ontario Ministry
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Ontario, 13 p.
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"Gear-related mortality in selective fisheries for
ocean salmon." North American Journal of
FisheriesManagement 16(3): 512-520.
: In ocean
fisheries for Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., there can
be several forms of gear-related mortality. Much research
effort hasbeen directed at estimating mortality rates for
salmon that are hooked and thenreleased. Also potentially
important but not easily measured is mortality of fish
that escape from the hook before being brought to the
boat or fish that are removed from the hook by predators,
so-called "drop offs." In selective fisheries
in which some hatchery-bred fish are marked for retention
and unmarked fish legally must be released, the actual
mortality rate suffered by unmarked fish depends on the
harvest rate for the marked fish, the accuracy of mark
recognition, and the proportion of marked and unmarked
fish when fishing begins. This paper develops a model for
evaluating gear-related mortality in selective fisheries
and explores the potential importance of several sources
of mortality.Mortality rates for unmarked fish are
generally lower than the apparent harvest rates but
increase rapidly as harvest rates increase. In the
overall mortality of unmarked fish, drop-off mortality
could be as important as hook-and -release mortality.
Lee, D.P. 1989. Mortality of tournament
caught and released black bass in California. In: Catch-and-Release
Fishing - A Decade of Experience, pp. 207-216. (Barnhart,
R.A. and T.D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, California:
Humboltd State University, California Cooperative
Fisheries Research Unit.
Loftus, A.J., W.W. Taylor and M. Keller. 1988.
An evaluation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)
hooking mortality in the upper Great Lakes. Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 1473-1479.
Marnell, L.F. and D. Hunsaker, II. 1970.
Hooking mortality of lure-caught cutthroat trout (Salmo
clarki) in relation to water temperature, fatigue, and
reproductive maturity of released fish. Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society 99: 684-688.
Martin, J.H., K.W. Rice and L.W. McEachron. 1987a.
Survival of three fishes caught on trotlines. Texas Parks
and Wildlife Department, Coastal Fisheries Branch,
Management Data Serial No. 111.
Martin, J.H., L.W. McEachron, J.F. Doerzbacher, K.W.
Rice and J.M. Mambretti. 1987b. Comparison of
trotline catches on four bait types in the Laguna Madre
during June-August 1985. Texas Parks and Wildlife
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Mason, J.W. and R.L. Hunt. 1967.
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Matlock, G.C. and J.A. Dailey. 1981.
Survival of hook-caught spotted seatrout held in cages.
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data
Serial No. 15.
Matlock, G.C., L.W. McEachron, J.A. Dailey, P.A.
Unger and P. Chai. 1993. Short-term hooking
mortalities of red drums and spotted seatrout caught on
single-barb and treble hooks. North American Journal of
Fisheries Management 13: 186-189.
May, B.E. 1973. Evaluation of large-scale
release programs with special reference to bass fishing
tournaments. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies,
May, E. 1990. An evaluation of angler
induced mortality of striped bass in Maryland. Maryland
Department of Natural Resources, AFC-18-1.
Meals, K. O. and L. E. Miranda. 1994. Size-related
mortality of tournament-caught largemouth bass. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management 14: 460-463.
Milne, D.J. and E.A.R. Ball. 1956. The
mortality of small salmon when caught by trolling and
tagged or released untagged. In: Progress Reports of
Pacific Coast Salmon Stations, No. 106, pp. 10-12.
Nanaimo, British Columbia: Fisheries Research Board of
Muoneke, M.I. 1991. Seasonal hooking
mortality of Guadalupe bass caught on artificial lures.
In: Warmwater Fisheries Symposium I, pp. 273-277. (Cooper,
J.L. and R.H. Hamre, Eds.). Fort Collins, Colorado: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service, General
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Muoneke, M.I. 1992a. Hooking mortality
of white crappie, Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque, and
spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque), in
Texas reservoirs. Aquaculture Fisheries Management 23: 87-93.
Muoneke, M.I. 1992b. Seasonal hooking
mortality of bluegills caught on natural baits. North
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Muoneke, M.I. 1993. Seasonal hooking
mortality of flathead catfish and blue catfish.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern
Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 45: 392-398.
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"Hooking mortality: A review for recreational
fisheries." Rev. Fish. Sci 2(2): 123-156.
regulations and promotion of catch-and-release fishing
have become increasingly important management approaches
for recreational fisheries. We review studies on catch-and-release
(hooking) mortality gathered from the existing fisheries
literature and from a survey of fisheries management
agencies in all 50 states, the U.S. government, all
Canadian provinces, and selected academic and research
institutions. We identified hooking mortality estimates
for 32 taxa. Most studies dealt with salmonids,
centrarchids (especially black basses, Micropterus spp.),
and percids (especially walleye, Stizostedion vitreum).
Within and among species, differences in percent
mortality were reported in association with bait type (artificial
vs. natural), hook type (number of hooks, hook size, and
barbs), season/temperature, water depth (depressurization),
anatomical location of hook wound, and individual size.
Although most hooking mortalities occur within 24 h, the
use of initial plus delayed mortality provides a more
complete estimate of mortality. Single hooks (especially
when used in conjunction with natural baits) resulted in
higher mortalities than treble hooks. Environmental
conditions (notably high water temperature and low
dissolved oxygen) are important to overall mortality
related to hooking, playing, and handling. Mortalities
were highly variable; occasionally exceeding 30% among
red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), smallmouth bass (M.
dolomieu), largemouth bass (M. salmoides), cutthroat
trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), and catfishes (Ictaluridae),
and 68% among spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus),
bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus), crappies, (Pomoxis spp.),
striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and coho salmon (O.
kisutch). Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and pikes (Esocidae)
had mortalities under 15%. The many variables potentially
affecting hooking mortality may make optimal management
of particular species and water bodies difficult using
regional-level (e.g., statewide) management regulations.
Myers, R.A. and S.M. Poarch. 2000.
Effects of bait type and hooking location on post-release
mortality of largemouth bass. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and
Wildlife Agencies 54: 39-45.
Nelson, K. L. 1998. Catch-and-release
mortality of striped bass in the Roanoke River, North
Carolina. North American Journal of Fisheries Management
Newman, D.L. and T.W. Storck. 1986. Angler
catch, growth and hooking mortality of tiger muskellunge
in small centrarchid-dominated impoundments. American
Special Publication 15: 246-351.
Natural Research Consultants. 1989.
Hooking mortality study. Saltonstall-Kennedy Project
Quarterly Progress Report, Natural Resources Consultants
Nuhfer, A.J. and G.R. Alexander. 1992.
Hooking mortality of trophy-sized wild brook trout caught
on artificial lures. North American Journal of Fisheries
Management 12: 634-644.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2003.
2000 Survey of recreational fishing in Ontario: a
descriptive analysis. Peterborough, Ontario. 237 p.
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Muskies
Canada. 1999. Effective release techniques for
muskellunge. Peterborough, Ontario. 7 p.
ONeil, J. and R. Pattenden. 1992.
Walleye mortality at four live-release tournaments in
Alberta, 1991. R.L. & L. Environmental Services Ltd.
Edmonton, Alberta, 49 p.
Orsi, J. A., A. C. Wertheimer, et al. (1993).
"Influence of selected hook and lure type on catch,
size, and mortality of commercially troll-caught chinook
salmon." North American Journal of Fisheries
Management 13(4): 709-722.
: Circle and J
hooks of two sizes, plugs of two sizes, hootchies, and
painted spoons were tested to determine their
relationship to hook-and-release mortality of chinook
salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Fewer chinook salmon and
adult coho salmon O. kisutch were caught with circle
hooks than with J hooks. Large J hooks caught more large
chinook salmon than did small J hooks, but the difference
was not significant (P = 0.10). Large plugs caught
significantly (P lt 0.05) larger chinook salmon and fewer
coho salmon and sublegal ( lt 66 cm fork length) chinook
salmon than other lures tested. Wound distribution on
chinook salmon varied (P lt 0.05) with hook type; circle
hooks lodged in the periphery of the mouth more
frequently than did J hooks. Results indicate that, in a
directed coho salmon troll fishery, the use of circle
hooks could reduce incidental mortality of chinook salmon
but would substantially reduce coho salmon catch rate. In
a quota-limited chinook salmon fishery, large plugs could
be used to harvest larger fish selectively, thereby
reducing encounters with sublegal fish.
Ott, R.A., Jr. and K.W. Storey. 1993.
Channel catfish hooking mortality. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish
and Wildlife Agencies 45: 399-406.
Parks, J.O. and J.E. Kraai. 1991.
Walleye hooking mortality at Lake Meredith. Texas Parks
and Wildlife Department, Fisheries Division, Management
Data Serial No. 52.
Pauley, G. B. and G. L. Thomas (1993).
"Mortality of anadromous coastal cutthroat trout
caught with artificial lures and natural bait."
North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13(2): 337-345.
: The mortality
of anadromous coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki
taken by anglers with worm-baited hooks of four different
sizes, spinners with single hooks, spinners with treble
hooks, and spinners with treble hooks baited with worms
was investigated on the Stillaguamish and Snohomish
rivers in Washington. In all but two comparisons
mortality of cutthroat trout was greater (P < 0.05)
from the four sizes of worm-baited hooks (39.5-58.1%)
than from the three different spinner treatments (10.5-23.8%).
The probability of killing fish was greater (P < 0.05)
when fish were hooked in either the gill (95.5%), tongue
(66.7%), esophagus (65.5%), or eye (53.8%) than in other
anatomical locations. A group of untagged fish that were
caught on worm-baited hooks but hooked only in the jaw or
mouth were used as control fish to evaluate tagging
mortality. The mortality of the untagged group (7.4%) was
not greater than the mortality of fish caught on all
terminal gear types and hooked in the upper or lower jaw
(5.8%), suggesting that mortality from tagging was not an
important factor. Mortality was positively related to
bleeding at the time of hooking. Hooking a fish in a
critical anatomical part was the most important factor
causing subsequent mortality.
Payer, R.D., R.B. Pierce and D.L. Pereira. 1989.
Hooking mortality of walleyes caught on live and
artificial baits. North American Journal of Fisheries
Management 9: 188-192.
Pelzman, R.J. 1978. Hooking mortality of
juvenile largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.
California Fish and Game 64(3): 185-188.
Persons, S. E. and S. A. Hirsch (1994).
"Hooking mortality of lake trout angled through ice
by jigging and set -lining." North American Journal
of Fisheries Management 14(3): 664-668.
mortality was determined for 96 lake trout Salvelinus
namaycush caught through the ice by jigging and by set-lining
with large dead baits on Gunflint Lake, Cook County,
Minnesota, in January 199 1. The estimated mortality rate
for all released lake trout was 24%; estimated mortality
rates for lake trout caught by set-lining and jigging
were 32 and 9%, respectively. Hooking location strongly
influenced lake trout mortality. Mortalities of lake
trout hooked in the gills or gut, inside the mouth, or in
the lip were 36, 29, and 0%, respectively. Seventy
percent of the lake trout caught by set-lining were
hooked in the gills or gut, compared with 9% of the lake
trout caught by jigging. The lack of mortality for lip -hooked
lake trout suggested that capturing fish from deep water
(25-50 ft), handling in cold temperatures (-20 to 20
degree F), fin-clipping, and cribbing had little-effect
on mortality during the study. High hooking mortality
rates for lake trout taken by set-lining suggested that
the use of this fishing method should be restricted when
management strategies require the release of winter-caught
Rowe, R. and K. Esseltine. 2001. Post
catch-and-release survival of Lake Nipissing walleye
during ice fishing. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
Draft Report. 14 p.
Rutledge, W.P. 1975. Hooking mortality
study. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Final Report,
Federal Aid Project, F-31-R1.
Rutledge, W.P. and D.L. Pritchard. 1977.
Hooking mortality of largemouth bass captured by
artificial lures and natural bait. In: Catch-and-Release
Fishing as a Management Tool, pp. 103-107. (Barnhart, R.A.
and T.D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, California: Humboltd
State University, California Cooperative Fisheries
Savitz, J., N. L. G. Bardygula, et al. (1995).
"Survival of smaller sport caught chinook,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), and coho,
Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), salmon from Lake Michigan
and its management implications." Fisheries
Management and Ecology 2(1): 11-16.
: The survival of
small-sized ( lt 50.8 cm) chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha (Walbaum), and coho salmon, Oncorhynchus
kitsutch (Walbaum), caught by sport fishing was
determined to assess the potential for increasing the
size limit for these fish. Fishermen were recently
catching smaller salmon than in the 1970s, but salmon
growth rates had not changed. To be an effective
management option, the survival rate of hooked and
returned fish must be high. The overall survival rates
were high: 76% for chinook salmon and 70% for coho salmon.
There was no significant difference in survival of the
coho salmon with size of hook used (P = 0.31). Any
mortality among fish was generally acute; fish hooked
deep in the mouth or gills generally bled and died
shortly after capture. Fish hooked in the gills had a
significantly greater mortality (P = 0.0002). The overall
high survival rate for these species was the result of a
small proportion of fish being hooked in the gills or
deep in the mouth. Since the survival rate of the salmon
was high, the size limit could be increased to allow
smaller fish to grow to sizes preferred by sport
Schaefer, W.F. 1989. Hooking mortality
of walleyes in a northwestern Ontario Lake. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management 9: 193-194.
Schaeffer, J.S. and E.M. Hoffman. 2002.
Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine
recreational fishery. North American Journal of Fisheries
Management 22: 229-235.
Schill, D. J. (1991). River and Stream
Investigations: Statewide Data Summary, Statewide
Population Simulations/Bull Trout Aging and Enumeration/Hagerman
Bait-Hooking Study/Electrophoresis Sampling Guidelines,
Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game. Job Performance Report.
Period Covered: 1 March 1990
fishery and population data were summarized for a variety
of Idaho wild trout fisheries. Simulations were used to
describe the potential stock structure of unexploited
populations over a range of Idaho growth; the effect of
12 regulations over a range of Idaho growth rates were
simulated. A pilot study was conducted to compare trout
ages derived from scales and otoliths, and three methods
for estimating bull trout densities and size structure
were compared. A study was conducted at the Hagerman
State Fish Hatchery to evaluate a method of minimizing
bait-hooking mortality. Literature was reviewed and
several genetics experts were contacted to develop
guidelines for electrophoresis sampling in Idaho.
Schill, D. J. (1996). "Hooking
mortality of bait-caught rainbow trout in an Idaho trout
stream and a hatchery: Implications for special-regulation
management." North American Journal of Fisheries
Management 16(2): 348-356.
: Mortality of
rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss caught and released by
anglers using number 8 worm-baited hooks was investigated
during 1990-1991 at the Hagerman (Idaho) State Fish
Hatchery and within a 2-km segment of Badger Creek, Idaho.
Cutting the line on deephooked rainbow trout reduced
postrelease mortality by 36% in the hatchery and 58% in
the wild during observations of 60 and 29-34 d,
respectively. Seventy-four percent of hatchery rainbow
trout and 60% of wild rainbow trout that had been hooked
deeply and released by cutting the line shed hooks during
the same periods. There were no significant differences (P
gt 0.05) in condition factors among surviving control,
light-hooked, and deep-hooked hatchery rainbow trout.
Seventeen percent of 281 wild rainbow trout on Badger
Creek were hooked in the gills or esophagus. Overall,
hooking mortality was estimated to be 16% for wild
rainbow trout. No significant differences in the
incidence of deep hooking were observed between small (lt
200 mm total length) and large ( gtoreq 200 mm) wild
rainbow trout (P gt 0.05). The frequency of deep hooking
was associated with the type of stream habitat where
hooking occurred (P lt 0.02) and was higher for catches
on a "slack line" than a "tight line"
(P lt 0.001). These data suggest that stream locations
where bait anglers actually catch fish and the general
habitat characteristics of a stream could influence bait-related
hooking mortality. Other factors that could influence the
compatibility of bait fishing and special-regulation
fisheries for salmonids include natural mortality rates,
the degree of participationin such fisheries by bait
anglers, and the proportion of bait anglers that cut the
leader on ddep -hooked fish prior to release. Depending
on management goals, bait fishing may be compatible with
special-regulation fisheries for salmonids in more
situations than is commonly believed.
Schill, D. J. and R. L. Scarpella (1997). "Barbed
hook restrictions in catch-and-release trout fisheries: A
social issue." North American Journalof Fisheries
Management 17(4): 873-881.
: We summarized
results of past studies that directly compared hooking
mortality of resident (nonanadromous) salmonids caught
and released with barbed or barbless hooks. Barbed hooks
produced lower hooking mortality in two of four
comparisons with flies and in three of five comparisons
with lures. Only 1 of 11 comparisons resulted in
statistically significant differences in hooking
mortality. In that instance, barbless baited hooks caused
significantly less mortality than barbed hooks, but
experimented design concerns limited the utility of this
finding. Mean hooking mortality rates from past lure
studies were slightly higher for barbed hooks than
barbless ones, but the opposite was true for flies. For
flies and lures combined, mean hooking mortality was 4.5%
for barbed hooks and 4.2% for barbless hooks. Combination
of test statistics from individual studies by gear type
via meta-analysis yielded nonsignificant results for
barbed versus barbless flies, lures, or flies and lures
combined. We conclude that the use of barbed or barbless
flies or lures plays no role in subsequent mortality of
trout caught and released by anglers. Because natural
mortality rates for wild trout in streams commonly range
from 30% to 65% annually, a 0.3% mean difference in
hooking mortality for the two hook types is irrelevant at
the population level, even when fish are subjected to
repeated capture. Based on existing mortality studies,
there is no biological basis for barbed hook restrictions
in artificial fly and lure fisheries for resident trout.
Restricting barbed hooks appears to be a social issue.
Managers proposing new special regulations to the angling
public should consider the social costs of implementing
barbed hook restrictions that produce no demonstrable
Schill, D.J., J.S. Griffith and R.E. Gresswell.
1986. Hooking mortality of cutthroat trout in a
catch-and-release segment of the Yellowstone River,
Yellowstone National Park. North American Journal of
Fisheries Management 6: 226-232.
Schisler, G. J. and E. P. Bergersen (1996).
"Postrelease hooking mortality of rainbow trout
caught on scented artificial baits." North American
Journal of Fisheries Management 16(3): 570-578.
: The postrelease
mortality of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss caught on
scented artificial baits was compared with postrelease
mortalities of rainbow trout caught on traditional
artificial flies. In all, 457 fish were captured on flies,
505 on artificial baits fished actively (ABA), and 511 on
artificial baits fished passively (ABP) in five replicate
experiments. Water temperature, fish length, time played,
time out of water, hook location, leader treatment, and
bleeding intensity were recorded for each fish captured.
Mortalities were recorded daily over a 3-week holding
period. Overall mortalities were 3.9% for fly-caught fish,
21.6% for fish caught on ABA, and 32.1% for fish caught
on ABP. Differential mortality among gear types resulted
largely from differences in the number of fish hooked in
the gill arches or deep in the esophagus (critically
hooked) in each group. Overall, critical bookings were 3.9%
for the fly-caught group, 45.7% for the ABA group, and 78.3%
for the ABP group. The Akaike Information Criterion, a
model selection procedure, was used to develop a
logistical regression model that best fit the mortality
data. Parameters that reduced mortality probability
include using flies rather than synthetic baits, hooking
the fish in a noncritical location, and cutting the
leader on critically hooked fish. In addition, as fish
length increased, mortality probability decreased. Length
of time played and length of time out of water
contributed to mortality, as did increasing water
temperatures and bleeding intensity.
Schramm, H.L., Jr., P.J. Haydt and N.A. Bruno.
1985. Survival of tournament-caught largemouth
bass in two Florida lakes. North American Journal of
Fisheries Management 5: 606-611.
Schramm, H.L., Jr., P.J. Haydt and K.M. Portier.
1987. Evaluation of pre-release, post-release,
and total mortality of largemouth bass caught during
tournaments in two Florida lakes. North American Journal
of Fisheries Management 7: 394-402.
Seidensticker, E.P. 1977. Mortality of
largemouth bass for two tournaments using a "Don't
Kill Your Catch" program. In: Catch-and-Release
Fishing as a Management Tool, pp. 99-102. (Barnhart, R.A.
and T.D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, California: Humboltd
State University, California Cooperative Fisheries
Shetter, D.S. and L.N. Allison. 1955.
Comparison of mortality between fly-hooked and worm-
hooked trout in Michigan streams. Michigan Department of
Conservation, Institute Fisheries Research Miscellaneous
Publication No. 9.
Shetter, D.S. and L.N. Allison. 1958.
Mortality of trout caused by hooking with artificial
lures in Michigan waters. Michigan Department of
Conservation, Institute for Fisheries Research
Miscellaneous Publication. No. 12.
Siewert, H.F. and J.B. Cave. 1990. Survival
of released bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, caught on
artificial flies, worms, and spinner lures. Journal of
Freshwater Ecology 5(4): 407-411.
Smith, I. 2001. How to make a cradle
release for muskie. Ontario Out of Doors, March: 20-22.
Strange, D. 2003. Through-the-gill hook
removal. In-Fisherman 28(6): 6-8.
Stringer, G.E. 1967. Comparative hooking
mortality using three types of terminal gear on rainbow
trout from Pennask Lake, British Columbia. Canadian Fish
Culturist 39: 17-21.
Suski, C.D., S.S. Killen, S.J. Cooke, J.D.
Kieffer, D.P. Philipp and B.L. Tufts. 2004.
Physiological significance of the weigh-in during live-release
angling tournaments for largemouth bass. Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society 133: 1291-1303.
Suski, C.D., J.H. Svec, J.B. Ludden, F.J.S.
Phelan and D.P. Philipp. 2003. The effect of
catch-and-release angling on the parental care behaviour
of male smallmouth bass. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society 132: 210-218.
Taylor, M. J. and K. R. White (1992).
"A meta-analysis of hooking mortality of
nonanadromous trout." North American Journal of
Fisheries Management 12(4): 760-767.
: The results of
18 studies of hooking mortality of nonanadromous trout
were integrated with meta-analysis. Studies were coded
for all variables suspected of having a relationship to
rates of hooking mortality. The analysis showed that
trout caught on bait died at higher rates than trout
caught on artificial flies or lures, that fish caught on
barbed hooks had higher mortality rates than fish caught
on barbless hooks, that brown trout Salmo trutta had
lower mortality rates than other species of nonanadromous
trout, and that wild trout died at higher rates than
hatchery-reared trout. Other variables, including size of
hooks, number of hooks, and water temperature, did not
show a statistically significant relationship to hooking
mortality. The results of this
review should assist fisheries management agencies in
refining and developing policies regarding fisheries
Tilyou, G.A. and C.E. Hoenke. 1992.
Evaluation of unattended yo-yos and triggers. Proceedings
of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association
of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 46: 505-509.
Titus, R.G. and C.D. Vanicek. 1988.
Comparative hooking mortality of lure-caught lahontan
cutthroat trout at Heenan Lake, California. California
Fish and Game 74(4): 218-225.
Tufts, B.L., Y. Lang, K. Tufts and R.G. Boutilier.
1991. Exhaustive exercise in "wild"
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): acid-base regulation and
blood gas transport. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences 48: 868-874.
Turek, S. M. and M. T. Brett (1997).
"Comment: Trout mortality from baited barbed and
barbless hooks (and reply)." North American Journal
ofFisheries Management 17(3): 807.
Vincent, L. D., M. Alexandersdottir, et al. (1993).
"Mortality of coho salmon caught and released using
sport tackle in the Little SusitnaRiver, Alaska."
Fisheries Research Amsterdam 15(4): 339-356.
: Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus
kisutch) were caught with sport gear in the estuary of
the Little Susitna River, southcentral Alaska (USA). Fish
were double marked and released. All coho salmon observed
migrating through a weir above the estuary and a portion
caught in a sport fishery below the weir were examined
for marks. A second group of coho salmon were caught
using similar sport gear above the estuary. These fish
were handled and marked identically as the fish captured
in the estuary, except that they were held in a holding
pen at the weir with an equal number of coho salmon dip
netted at the weir. Coho salmon which were caught and
released in the estuary suffered a significantly higher
rate of mortality (69%) than did either the coho salmon
caught and held above the estuary (12%) or those which
were dip netted and held at the weir (1%). Factors that
could influence rates of hook-induced mortality were
measured at the time of hooking. Hook location, hook
removal, and bleeding significantly affected the measured
Warner, K. 1976. Hooking mortality of
landlocked Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar in a hatchery
environment. Transactions of the American Fisheries
Society 105: 365-369.
Warner, K. 1978. Mortality of lake-dwelling
landlocked Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society 107: 518-522.
Warner, K. 1979. Mortality of landlocked
Atlantic salmon hooked on four types of fishing gear at
the hatchery. Progressive Fish Culturist 41: 99-102.
Warner, K. and P.R. Johnson. 1978.
Mortality of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
hooked on flies and worms in a river nursery area.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107: 772-775.
Weidlein, W.D. 1989. Mortality of
released sublegal-sized smallmouth bass, catch-and-release
implications. In: Catch-and-Release Fishing A
Decade of Experience, pp 217-228. (Barnhart, R.A. and T.D.
Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, California: Humboltd State
University, California Cooperative Fisheries Research
Welborn, T.L., Jr., and J.H. Barkley. 1974. Study
on the survival of tournament released bass on Ross R.
Barnett Reservoir, April 1973. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and
Fish Agencies 27: 512-519.
Wertheimer, A., A. Celewycz, H. Jaenicke, D.
Mortensen and J. Orsi. 1989. Size-related
hooking mortality of incidentally caught chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Marine Fisheries Review 51(2):
Wertheimer, A.C. 1988. Hooking mortality
of chinook salmon released by commercial trollers. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management 8: 346-355.
Wilde, G.R. 1998. Tournament-associated
mortality in black bass. Fisheries 23(10): 12-22.
Wilde, G.R., M.I. Muoneke, P.W. Bettoli, K.L.
Nelson and B.T. Hysmith. 2000. Bait and
temperature effects on striped bass hooking mortality in
freshwater. North American Journal of Fisheries
Management 20: 810-815.
Wilkie, M.P., M.A. Brobbel, K. Davidson, L.
Forsyth and B.L. Tufts. 1997. Influences of
temperature upon the post-exercise physiology of Atlantic
salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences 54: 503-511.
Wydoski, R.S., G.A. Wedemeyer and N.C. Nelson.
1976. Physiological response to hooking stress
in hatchery and wild rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 5: 601-606.